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My academic research is focused on the ethics of self-defence, compensation and punishment. My PhD project focused on how (if at all) justifications of defensive harming are affected when the victims are partially responsible for being threatened, for instance through provocation or risk-taking. 



  1. "Entrapment and Manipulation", Res Publica vol. 28, no. 1 (2022): 557-58.
    Winner of the 2022 Res Publica Postgraduate Essay Prize.

  2. "The Ethics of Political Bots: Should We Allow Them for Personal Use?", Journal of Practical Ethics vol. 5, no. 2 (2017): 85-104.
    Runner-up for the 2017 Oxford Uehiro Prize in Practical Ethics.


  1. "Review of Christopher Nathan, The Ethics of Undercover Policing", Criminal Law and Philosophy (forthcoming).

Work in Progress:

  1. [A paper on provocation and self-defence] (R&R)

  2. [A paper on necessity and time] (Under review)

  3. [A paper on policing protests]

  4. [A paper on social injustice and defensive harming]

  5. [A paper on hypocrisy and government advice (with Romy Eskens)]

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